Friday, June 15, 2007


1. Q: Please explain the alternate method for calculating Rentable Area for each tenant. I am averaging the individual floor R/U ratios but the result doesn’t equal the Building R/U Ratio.
A: The R/U ratio will usually differ for each floor, so that a building typically will not have just one R/U ratio. Since Floor Common Areas vary according to corridor configuration on the various floors, likewise the floor R/U ratio varies for each floor. The R/U ratio to be used on a floor is the product of the Floor R/U and the Building R/U (Floor R/U x Building R/U = R/U for that floor). Each floor of a building will have an R/U ratio by using this method.

2. Q: If a private stairway is built between two floors occupied by one tenant, is that stairway part of Rentable Area? Is it part of the Usable Area?
A: Yes. The Standard states specifically that vertical penetrations built for the private use of a tenant occupying Office Areas on more than one floor are counted as Rentable. The stairway would also be part of the Usable Area of the tenant.

3. Q: Are areas outside the fire resistance enclosure of a Major Vertical Penetration considered part of that penetration? For example, plumbing chases behind restrooms?
A: Walls enclosing the major vertical penetration, which are required by building codes, are part of the penetration. Additional walls outside these enclosing walls are not considered part of the penetration and are not deducted from Rentable Area.

4. Q: How are “enclosing walls” defined in conjunction with Major Vertical Penetrations? What about the floor of the stair tower or the elevator pits of the elevator shaft?
A: The term “enclosing walls” refers to those walls required by building code, and not to the architectural or decorative treatments of those walls. The floor of a stair tower and the pits of the elevator shaft, when found inside the enclosing walls, are part of the Major Vertical Penetration. However, if an area is not within the enclosing walls (such as a storage room under the stair tower), the area is part of the Rentable Area.

5. Q: Regarding “Dominant Portion”... where a wall meets a column (such as in the illustration on page 7), a “bite” appears to be taken out of the column as the measurement line shifts. If the column is not square, how are the dimensions of the “bite” determined?
A: Columns are not considered in the Standard. Therefore, where a column interrupts the Dominant Portion, the Dominant Portion that exists on each side of the column continues through one-half of the horizontal distance of the column. Where a column interrupts a Dominant Portion that is the same on both sides, the Dominant Portion continues through the column as if the column did not exist. Where a column interrupts a Dominant Portion that is different on each side, the Dominant Portion on one side continues for one-half the horizontal distance and then either steps in or out to meet the Dominant Portion from the other side.

6. Q: Are Major Vertical Penetrations included in Store Area?
A: No, major vertical penetrations are excluded when calculating Store Area. Rentable Area itself excludes Major Vertical Penetrations — and, since store area is less than or equal to Floor Rentable Area on the floor where the store is located, Store Area likewise will exclude Major Vertical Penetrations.

7. Q: Are “areas of refuge” (mainly a feature of Canadian buildings) deducted as Major Vertical Penetrations?
A: If the area of refuge is not isolated from the stairwell, then it is part of the Major Vertical Penetration and deducted as such. If the area of refuge is isolated from the stairwell with its own set of doors, then it is part of Floor Rentable Area and distributed to each Office Area through the application of the R/U Ratio.

8. Q: If a Store Area is on a corner, is the measurement taken to the building line on both sides? Does it matter whether entrances to the space are located on both sides?
A: Store Area requires a street frontage and a ground level. It is possible for a square building to meet these conditions on every one of its sides. In that situation and on that level, the Dominant Portion would be the building line on each side. However, the sides do not have to be at the same level. A building can have street frontage and ground level on one side (e.g., Floor 1) and street frontage and ground level (e.g., Floor 3). Each of those two floors would be considered Store Area, and the Dominant Portion would be the building line. Having a separate street entrance for the space is not a requirement in determining street frontage for a Store Area.

9. Q: How is building line defined where the ground floor building face is set back further than the upper floors from the street frontage?
A: The Standard is intended to measure space that is fully enclosed. Therefore the building line, as used in the Standard to determine Store Area, is the outside face of the column line (or the exterior building surface if columns are not present) of the ground floor on the street frontage exposure. Deviations to the building line, including projections or recesses, are ignored unless they are part of the permanent building exterior of the ground floor.

10.Q: Is a courtyard included in Building Common Area if it is enclosed by four sides but not a roof? (See reference to “fully enclosed courtyard outside the exterior walls” at top of page 3 of the Standard and illustration on page 19.)
A: “Fully enclosed” refers to an enclosed space where environmental conditions are maintained by a heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. So there must be a roof in order for the courtyard to be fully enclosed.

11.Q: On an above-ground floor, can a corridor that is ordinarily Floor Common Area be assessed to a particular tenant if it provides the only access to their space? Similarly, can a portion of a ground floor lobby that is ordinarily part of Building Common Area be assessed to a particular tenant if it provides the only access to their space?
A: Corridors by their nature typically provide the only access to an office or store, even when the corridor is required primarily for fire egress. The Standard allows, on page 16, that “Where alcoves, recessed entrances or similar deviation from the corridor line are present...” they may be part of the Usable Area, just like the space would have been if the deviation had not occurred. You should first determine whether the suite entrance could be positioned to incorporate the area in question without obstructing other occupants, fire egress, or other building services, before deciding that the area belongs to the Usable Area of an office or store. Remember that no area can be accounted for more than once. If an area belongs to the Usable Area of an office or store, it must be excluded from Floor Common Area, Building Common Area, or the Usable Area of any other office or store.

12.Q: Can a mechanical room serving tenants on an above-ground floor be part of Building Common Area?
A: Yes, if it is not already part of a Floor Common Area.

13.Q: Does the Standard measure space on belowground floors?
A. Yes, except for those areas specifically excluded by the Standard, such as parking areas. STANDARD METHOD FOR MEASURING FLOOR AREA IN OFFICE BUILDINGS • ANSWERS TO 26 KEY

14.Q: Is storage space part of Building Common Area in a multi-tenant building? Is storage space Usable if it is for the express use of a given tenant?
A: Areas that are used for storage, whether above or below grade, are measured just like an Office (or Store in the cases of street frontage), because these spaces could house tenants’ personnel, furniture, files or supplies. If the space is a common storage area available for use by all tenants at no additional charge, than it would be calculated under Building Common Area. If it is for the express use of a given tenant, the storage space would have both a Usable and Rentable measurement.

15.Q: Is parking ever counted as Rentable?
A: No, the Standard excludes parking space.

16.Q: If a tenant expands its Rentable Area, does the Floor R/U Ratio and Building R/U Ratio change as a result — meaning that each tenant’s Rentable Area would change?
A: Tenant expansion and new tenant activity may indeed affect the Floor R/U Ratio and/or Building R/U Ratio. If tenant expansion or new tenant activity occurs in part or all of an existing Store Area or Office Area, the ratios remain unchanged. However, if tenant expansion or new tenant activity incorporates what had been Floor Common Area or Building Common Area into the newly created Store or Office Area — or creates additional Floor Common Area or Building Common Area from what was previously Store or Office Area — then one or both ratios will be affected. The Floor R/U Ratio will change if Floor Common Area is increased or decreased (e.g., by changing the configuration of floor circulation corridors or enlarging a restroom). The Building R/U Ratio will change if Building Common Area is increased or decreased (e.g., by leasing an exercise room) or if the Floor R/U Ratio is adjusted on a floor containing Building Common Area. Changes to the Floor R/U Ratio and Building R/U Ratio will affect the Rentable Area of all the offices or stores located on that floor or in the building. For purposes of stability, adjustments to existing leases based on changes to Rentable Area are typically not made, although the new ratios are used in future lease transactions.

17.Q: Regarding the illustration on page 16 of the Standard... Is the measurement taken to the center line of partitions between adjoining tenant spaces and to the center line of partitions between tenant spaces and Building Common Areas?
A: Yes. The measurement is taken to the center line of partitions between adjoining Office Area(s) or Store Area(s), Building Common Area(s) and the Building Common Area being measured. Building Common Area is measured just like Office or Store Area in determining Usable Area.

18.Q: It is stated in the Standard (on page 14) that “Building Common Areas are considered to be part of Floor Usable Area.” Can this possibly mean that the Building Common Areas on a ground-level floor (see the illustration on page 22) are to be measured twice?
A: No — the Standard does not allow the same space to be measured twice. The illustration on page 14 shows all the area that is part of the Floor Usable Area, which includes both Store Area and Building Common Area. Similar to the illustration on page 20 that deals specifically with Store Area and how it is measured, the illustration on page 22 highlights Building Common Area. Illustrations on page 20 and 22 are components of the Floor Usable Area for the ground-level floor. Together they are the Floor Usable Area illustrated on page 14. The intent of the Standard is for Building Common Area to be part of the Floor Usable Area. Building Common Area needs to take part of the Floor Common Area allocation on the floor(s) on which the Building Common Area is located. Building Common Area, just like Store Area and Office Area, benefits from the circulation corridors and other Floor Common Areas. This allocation is necessary in order to fairly distribute the Floor Common Area to the users. If the allocation was not made, occupants on floors with Building Common Area would receive an unfair higher allocation of Floor Common Area. STANDARD METHOD FOR MEASURING FLOOR AREA IN OFFICE BUILDINGS • ANSWERS TO 26 KEY 19.Q: Why isn’t the exercise club (area #14) and restaurant (area #19) part of Building Common Area as illustrated on page 22 if they are serving the entire building? A: These areas represent rent-paying tenants — so while they do provide a service to the entire building (indeed to any paying customer), they are Store Area rather than Building Common Area. However, if these areas were a building amenity that all tenants could use as part of their lease, then they would be considered Building Common Area instead.

20.Q: In an office complex, would mechanical areas located in one building — but which serve others as well — be considered Building Common Area? What about underground corridors that link one building with another?
A: Although the Standard does not deal specifically with building complexes, it would be a reasonable adaptation to consider the entire project as one building and to allocate the common corridors and building mechanical area as allowed through Building Common Area.

21.Q: Is atrium space measured by the Standard?
A: Atrium space above the main lobby floor does not constitute Rentable Area. It is empty space and is treated, in effect, as a Major Vertical Penetration. The base of the atrium, however (i.e., the finished floor) is measured.

22.Q: Are mezzanines measured by the Standard?
A: All floor space in a building is measured, including mezzanines. The purpose of the Standard is to measure the actual square feet contained in the building. The usefulness of a particular space is not addressed by the Standard, and is better left for lease negotiations between Landlord and Tenant. Varying lease rates are common in the market using such criteria as location on the floor, proximity to the elevator lobby, windows, views, height in the building, and the usefulness of a particular space.

23.Q: On a single tenant floor, are the elevator lobby and restrooms considered Usable Area?
A: The BOMA Standard defines Usable Area as space that tenants can actually occupy and use and may allocate to house personnel and furniture. Thus, if an elevator lobby is under the tenant’s control and could be put to use (as a reception area, for instance), it is Usable Area. However, if the tenant cannot use that space because of fire code or other restrictions, it is not Usable Area. Restrooms are not considered Usable Area under the Standard, although they are part of Rentable Area.

24.Q: Is Gross Building Area an appropriate way to measure a single occupant building?
A: The Standard is a systematic method for measuring office buildings, and should be used in its entirety for each building. Its purpose is to provide a common and agreed-upon basis for comparing lease rates, building efficiencies, operating costs and other relevant data. For example, Gross Building Area is used within the industry primarily to determine construction costs or building value. Usable Area is often used to determine cleaning costs and space efficiencies. Single occupant buildings will often need to be compared to multi-occupant buildings and, in these cases, Building Rentable Area is the recommended measurement to use. Gross Building Area would be an appropriate method in determining lease rate only if the parties agree. Each part of the Standard has its own use and needs to be applied regardless of the number of occupants.

25.Q: Does the Standard provide for the measurement of warehouse or industrial space? Does it cover a shopping center or strip mall?
A: The Standard is intended to apply specifically to the measurement of office buildings, whether multitenant, single tenant, or owner-occupied. A method for measuring Store Area in office buildings is contained in the Standard. No provision is currently made for measuring any other types of buildings.

Monday, April 16, 2012

iSTAR® the world’s first automatic rapid 360º camera launches in Texas

Camera design and manufacturing company, NCTech, is today launching the world’s first fully automatic instant 360º panoramic camera at SPAR International 2012 in Texas. Eagerly anticipated, the iSTAR® is widely predicted to displace current technology globally across multiple sectors including police, military, engineering, media and heritage.

Monday, April 16, 2012

Trimble Introduces New Positioning Solution for Tunnel Construction

PARIS, April 16, 2012 Trimble (NASDAQ:TRMB) today introduced three new solutions for heavy civil construction professionals, the Trimble® Connected Office, the Trimble Connected Controller and the Trimble Connected Machine.

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Laser Technologies: Taking the Guesswork Out of Pipeline Condition Assessment

Every year, wastewater managers must make decisions about which portions of their collection system should be maintained, rehabilitated or replaced. With the EPA and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) both projecting hundreds of billions of dollars of investment shortfalls facing our aging wastewater infrastructure, it is more important than ever that our wastewater managers are able to spend these limited funds most wisely to reduce risks and maintain service levels at a low cost.

Thursday, February 9, 2012

Laser scanner from Faro Technologies measures up to 976,000 points/s

FARO Introduces Next Generation Focus3D Laser Scanner

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Do you have permission to scan that building?

ORLANDO, Fla. – If any presentation here at the FARO 3D Documentation Conference truly got attendees thinking it was Tuesday’s talk by Tom Kurke and Michael Weinberg: “It will be awesome if they don’t screw it up: Bringing IP issues in digital documentation into focus.”

Monday, July 27, 2009

Autodesk 2010 Certification Now Available for Design Professionals

Certified Associate and Certified Professional exams now available for newest versions of AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk Revit Architecture, and AutoCAD Civil 3D Software

Friday, June 15, 2007



Thursday, February 15, 2007

3D Laser Mapping Supports Kumba Iron Ore Extraction

Nottingham, UK - 3D Laser Mapping, the UK based specialists in laser measurement technology and software, is helping Kumba Iron Ore to improve the safety of iron ore extraction in South Africa. 3D Laser Mapping has supplied and installed a Riegl LMS Z420i laser scanner, the first scanner of its type in South Africa, which is being used to monitor slope deformation in order to reduce the levels of risk to personnel and equipment that occur as a result of potential slope failure. The system uses the latest laser technology to capture highly accurate slope measurements that are then analysed to identify areas of movement and therefore potential failure.

Monday, February 12, 2007

Certifying As-built or Record Drawings

Architects should use caution when giving record drawings to clients and when creating “as-built” drawings. Examples of provisional language that might be used to mitigate the risk involved with “as- built” drawings are included.

Wednesday, January 17, 2007

Measuring Floor Area for Commercial Leases

Measuring Floor Area for Commercial Leases

Monday, January 15, 2007

3D Laser Mapping Launches Telecom Mapping System

3D Laser Mapping has launched a mobile mapping system designed to capture asbuilt 3D measurements of overhead telecom networks. The vehicle-mounted WireFinder system uses laser technology and specially designed software to measure the position of telecom network assets, such as poles and wires.

Wednesday, January 10, 2007

Bentley OnSite Connects Worlds of Civil Engineering Design and Construction Speeds Project Construction, Decreases Project Risk and Costly Rework

EXTON, PA., January 4 /CNW/ - Bentley Systems, Incorporated today announced Bentley OnSite, breakthrough software that connects the worlds of civil engineering design and construction. This new offering automates and streamlines tasks for stakeout, inspection, and measurement in the field, facilitating project management and helping ensure unprecedented levels of accuracy during construction.

Wednesday, December 13, 2006

GiveMePower Launches PowerCAD SiteMaster Turn-On-and-Go

CALGARY, Alberta, December 13, 2006 - GiveMePower Corporation (OTCBB: GMPW), today launched two new ultra-mobile computing solutions for building surveying and inspection, construction area estimating and reporting, and facilities asset and information management - featuring hardware from mobility market leaders Dell (NASDAQ: DELL) and Tablet Kiosk.

Wednesday, November 29, 2006

3D Laser Mapping Launches StreetMapper 2

3D Laser Mapping has launched StreetMapper 2, a new modular vehicle-mounted system for rapid 3D mapping on and off road. The portable system uses lasers to 3D map assets and the landscape to millimeter accuracy at speeds of up to 70 km an hour.

Tuesday, November 8, 2005

Autodesk Supports Visual Studio, .NET Framework, MS SQL

SAN RAFAEL, California, November 8, 2005 - Autodesk, Inc. (Nasdaq: ADSK) today announced support for Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, the .NET Framework 2.0 and Microsoft SQL Server 2005. Autodesk and Microsoft work together across many technology areas. Autodesk's data management products, built using SQL Server, enable teams to gain greater insight and maximize efficiency by always having instant access to design information. The Microsoft products combined with AutoCAD-based products from Autodesk provide an optimal platform for application developers to realize their ideas in designing and creating a wide range of software applications, from shipbuilding to facilities management, plant design to urban planning, architecture to emergency response.

Monday, November 6, 2006

How can BIM benefit facilities management?

BIM is certainly changing the way buildings are designed and constructed, but is it changing how they're operated and maintained? There is a lot of interest in the industry around using building information for FM (facilities management), but how does this really work? Do the benefits of BIM extend to FM?

Thursday, November 2, 2006

Prime Edge Asbuilt Services proposes a new method for building field data verifications

San Francisco, California. — November 2, 2006 — Prime Edge Asbuilt Services today announced that it is underway to develop a full set of business applications for use by of professionals within construction, property management and design industries. Software applications include estimating software interface is called PrimeCue. EdgeCue is a CAD based software package and PlanCue is a facility plan management interface. Beta versions of these packages have been used by the company for the last two years and the updated version of the products will allow users to take advantage of a patent pending method for building data collection for estimating, drafting and management purposes, making it easier than ever to prepare asbuilt floor plans, estimate amount of work to be performed or provide a detailed information with regard to the occupied space for facility planning purposes. In an effort to make this technology available to the industry professionals Prime Edge had launched AsbuiltEdge Technologies which will be responsible for the software and business development associated with the system.

Saturday, October 21, 2006

Building for Boomers

Preparing for the changes of aging, including declining mobility, is also a concern. A 2005 study conducted by Vista Market Intelligence of Lake Oswego found that 89 percent of boomers would like to have the master bedroom on the main floor of their home; 79 percent said they would prefer to own a single-story home.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Management of Potential Change Orders with As-builts

Every project is unique and requires an immense amount of skills and expertise to be completed successfully and on time. It is almost given that at some point or throughout the project you will be hiring an Architect and a General Building Contractor to design and build what you have in mind. This article is written with homeowner in mind as a guideline for a very interesting and education experience of remodeling your house which waits ahead of you. First thing that you as a homeowner should understand is the fact that construction project you are about to begin is complex.

Tuesday, October 10, 2006

Autodesk Releases FMDesktop 7.0 Product Suite

SAN RAFAEL, California, October 10, 2006 - Autodesk, Inc. (Nasdaq: ADSK)today announced the launch of the Autodesk FMDesktop Product Suite, a powerful, easy-to-use software solution for facilities management. Developed by and for experienced facility managers, the Autodesk FMDesktop 7.0 suite of products, including Facility Manager, Facility Link, Facility Web and Facility Request, helps deliver the power of digital facility management through intuitive and easy-to-use features. The scalable computer-aided facility management (CAFM) suite of products was built on Autodesk's DWF platform, and, by incorporating the latest DWF viewing technologies, provides facilities managers with a simple, accurate method to create, manage and share building operating data throughout the enterprise. This is the first full version of FMDesktop launched by Autodesk, who acquired the application in January 2006 as part of the acquisition of Applied Spatial Technologies.

Monday, October 9, 2006

Ranal Launches CAMeLEAN/PM Project Management Suite

BANGALORE, India, October 9, 2006 – Ranal Software Solutions – one of the leading PLM products and service providers, and part of the Ranal Group – has launched CAMeLEAN®/PM, in India. CAMeLEAN®/PM is a complete project management suite that guides organizations through the entire project management lifecycle.

Friday, September 15, 2006

Your As-Builts Are Your Blueprint for Success

Most contractors know that next to the finished product, the as-builts documentation is essential part of a construction project. As-builts are the final blueprint drawings which reflect changes made in the field during the construction of a new structure or an addition to an existing. As-built drawings consist of a full set of construction documents and detail built structure in every detail. Electrical and Mechanical drawings are especially important part of the documentation due to the much higher cost associated with field changes. Most commercial property owners and property managers keep a set of current as-builts handy at all times to access essential information on daily basis. In fact, some entities consider as-built documentation such important part of the construction process, they require drawings to be completed prior to issuing final occupancy.

Monday, August 21, 2006 and Prime Edge As-Built Services to Combine Forces to Create a New Field in Stock Photography

UNION CITY, California, August 21, 2006 —, an emerging stock photography web site, which have been serving photographing community since 2004 had agreed to work on the development of new stock photography interface with Prime Edge Asbuilt Services, a professional service in SF Bay Area serving a network of Architects, Homeowners and General Contractors.

Monday, April 3, 2006

Autodesk Completes Acquisition of Constructware

SAN RAFAEL, California,April 3, 2006 - Autodesk, Inc. (NASDAQ: ADSK), today announced it has completed the acquisition of Constructware, a privately held company based in Alpharetta, Georgia that provides on-demand communication and collaboration solutions that streamline design, construction and facility management. The acquisition, announced on February 7, 2006, closed for cash consideration of US $46 million (see press release). This acquisition enables Autodesk to rapidly expand its Autodesk Buzzsaw collaborative project management solution with Constructware software’s industry leading cost, bid and risk management capabilities. The acquisition allows Autodesk to more completely meet the needs of its customers as they realize their ideas through the use of on-demand collaborative project management solutions.

Friday, March 24, 2006

Autodesk Updates Building Solutions Complete Portfolio

Autodesk Revit Building 9, Revit Structure 3, ADT 2007, Autodesk Building Systems 2007, Autodesk VIZ 2007 launched.

Tuesday, April 5, 2005

As-builts – Problems & Proposed Solutions

As-builts – Problems & Proposed Solutions

Friday, May 28, 2004

How big is a square foot? It all depends on your audience

Measuring square footage is not always an exact science. There are a number of rentable square footage measurement standards commonly used in the commercial real estate market. Each method, if used on the same space, would result in a different rentable square foot number.

Friday, January 31, 1997

New BOMA standards clarify lease space

The American National Standard for measuring floor area in office buildings is changing. The new version (officially labeled ANSI/BOMA Z65.1-1996) is an improved method designed to meet the current and future needs of the many industry professionals concerned with the measurement of office buildings.

Thursday, July 9, 2009

BIM and Laser Scanning for As-built and Adaptive Reuse Projects: The Opportunity for Surveyors

In his inaugural speech the new President made many references to using our natural resources more wisely, to reducing our carbon and water footprints, and investing in smart electric grids and other similar new energy-efficient technologies. Energy conservation and sustainability are top priorities and efforts are underway in many states to reinforce that--many offering fast tracked permitting to those projects that are "green". While many in the surveying community may view this as a nice gesture and work for others to do, make no mistake, while nothing is recession proof this opens up many doors of opportunity for surveyors, ones that are profitable and very much in demand.

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Leica Geosystems Announces the Release of Leica CloudWorx 1.0 for SmartPlant 3D

Leica Geosystems announces the immediate availability of Leica CloudWorx™ 1.0 for SmartPlant 3D. This powerful and easy-to-learn point cloud solution is designed for Intergraph SmartPlant 3D users who want to take full advantage of accurate, laser scan as-built data directly in SmartPlant 3D. Leica CloudWorx™ 1.0 for SmartPlant 3D is the latest addition to the Leica CloudWorx suite of products that enable professionals to use rich, as-built point cloud data directly in their native desktop design and visualization platform. SmartPlant 3D is Intergraph's next generation plant design platform.